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platform.c

/*
 *  R : A Computer Language for Statistical Data Analysis
 *  Copyright (C) 1995, 1996  Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka
 *  Copyright (C) 1998, 2001-8 The R Development Core Team
 *
 *  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 *  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 *  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 *  (at your option) any later version.
 *
 *  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 *  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 *  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 *  GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 *  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 *  along with this program; if not, a copy is available at
 *  http://www.r-project.org/Licenses/
 */

/* <UTF8> char here is either ASCII or handled as a whole */

#ifdef HAVE_CONFIG_H
# include <config.h>
#endif

#include <Defn.h>
#include <Rinterface.h>
#include <Fileio.h>
#include <R_ext/Applic.h>           /* machar */

#include <time.h>

#ifdef HAVE_ERRNO_H
# include <errno.h>
#endif

/* Machine Constants */

static void Init_R_Machine(SEXP rho)
{
    SEXP ans, nms;

    machar(&R_AccuracyInfo.ibeta,
         &R_AccuracyInfo.it,
         &R_AccuracyInfo.irnd,
         &R_AccuracyInfo.ngrd,
         &R_AccuracyInfo.machep,
         &R_AccuracyInfo.negep,
         &R_AccuracyInfo.iexp,
         &R_AccuracyInfo.minexp,
         &R_AccuracyInfo.maxexp,
         &R_AccuracyInfo.eps,
         &R_AccuracyInfo.epsneg,
         &R_AccuracyInfo.xmin,
         &R_AccuracyInfo.xmax);

    R_dec_min_exponent = floor(log10(R_AccuracyInfo.xmin)); /* smallest decimal exponent */
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(VECSXP, 18));
    PROTECT(nms = allocVector(STRSXP, 18));
    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 0, mkChar("double.eps"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 0, ScalarReal(R_AccuracyInfo.eps));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 1, mkChar("double.neg.eps"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 1, ScalarReal(R_AccuracyInfo.epsneg));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 2, mkChar("double.xmin"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 2, ScalarReal(R_AccuracyInfo.xmin));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 3, mkChar("double.xmax"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 3, ScalarReal(R_AccuracyInfo.xmax));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 4, mkChar("double.base"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 4, ScalarInteger(R_AccuracyInfo.ibeta));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 5, mkChar("double.digits"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 5, ScalarInteger(R_AccuracyInfo.it));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 6, mkChar("double.rounding"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 6, ScalarInteger(R_AccuracyInfo.irnd));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 7, mkChar("double.guard"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 7, ScalarInteger(R_AccuracyInfo.ngrd));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 8, mkChar("double.ulp.digits"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 8, ScalarInteger(R_AccuracyInfo.machep));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 9, mkChar("double.neg.ulp.digits"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 9, ScalarInteger(R_AccuracyInfo.negep));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 10, mkChar("double.exponent"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 10, ScalarInteger(R_AccuracyInfo.iexp));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 11, mkChar("double.min.exp"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 11, ScalarInteger(R_AccuracyInfo.minexp));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 12, mkChar("double.max.exp"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 12, ScalarInteger(R_AccuracyInfo.maxexp));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 13, mkChar("integer.max"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 13, ScalarInteger(INT_MAX));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 14, mkChar("sizeof.long"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 14, ScalarInteger(SIZEOF_LONG));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 15, mkChar("sizeof.longlong"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 15, ScalarInteger(SIZEOF_LONG_LONG));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 16, mkChar("sizeof.longdouble"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 16, ScalarInteger(SIZEOF_LONG_DOUBLE));

    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 17, mkChar("sizeof.pointer"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 17, ScalarInteger(sizeof(SEXP)));
    setAttrib(ans, R_NamesSymbol, nms);
    defineVar(install(".Machine"), ans, rho);
    UNPROTECT(2);
}


/*  Platform
 *
 *  Return various platform dependent strings.  This is similar to
 *  "Machine", but for strings rather than numerical values.  These
 *  two functions should probably be amalgamated.
 */
static const char  * const R_OSType = OSTYPE;
static const char  * const R_FileSep = FILESEP;

static void Init_R_Platform(SEXP rho)
{
    SEXP value, names;

    PROTECT(value = allocVector(VECSXP, 8));
    PROTECT(names = allocVector(STRSXP, 8));
    SET_STRING_ELT(names, 0, mkChar("OS.type"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(names, 1, mkChar("file.sep"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(names, 2, mkChar("dynlib.ext"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(names, 3, mkChar("GUI"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(names, 4, mkChar("endian"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(names, 5, mkChar("pkgType"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(names, 6, mkChar("path.sep"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(names, 7, mkChar("r_arch"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(value, 0, mkString(R_OSType));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(value, 1, mkString(R_FileSep));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(value, 2, mkString(SHLIB_EXT));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(value, 3, mkString(R_GUIType));
#ifdef WORDS_BIGENDIAN
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(value, 4, mkString("big"));
#else
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(value, 4, mkString("little"));
#endif
#ifdef Win32
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(value, 5, mkString("win.binary"));
#else /* not Win32 */
#ifdef HAVE_AQUA
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(value, 5, mkString("mac.binary"));
#else /* not Win32 nor Aqua */
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(value, 5, mkString("source"));
#endif
#endif
#ifdef Win32
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(value, 6, mkString(";"));
#else /* not Win32 */
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(value, 6, mkString(":"));
#endif
#ifdef R_ARCH
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(value, 7, mkString(R_ARCH));
#else
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(value, 7, mkString(""));
#endif
    setAttrib(value, R_NamesSymbol, names);
    defineVar(install(".Platform"), value, rho);
    UNPROTECT(2);
}

void attribute_hidden Init_R_Variables(SEXP rho)
{
    Init_R_Machine(rho);
    Init_R_Platform(rho);
}

#ifdef HAVE_LANGINFO_CODESET
/* case-insensitive string comparison (needed for locale check) */
int static R_strieql(const char *a, const char *b)
{
    while (*a && *b && toupper(*a) == toupper(*b)) { a++; b++; }
    return (*a == 0 && *b == 0);
}
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_LOCALE_H
# include <locale.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_LANGINFO_CODESET
# include <langinfo.h>
#endif

/* retrieves information about the current locale and
   sets the corresponding variables (known_to_be_utf8,
   known_to_be_latin1, utf8locale, latin1locale and mbcslocale) */
void attribute_hidden R_check_locale(void)
{
    known_to_be_utf8 = utf8locale = FALSE;
    known_to_be_latin1 = latin1locale = FALSE;
    mbcslocale = FALSE;
#ifdef HAVE_LANGINFO_CODESET
    {
      char  *p = nl_langinfo(CODESET);
      /* more relaxed due to Darwin: CODESET is case-insensitive and
         latin1 is ISO8859-1 */
      if (R_strieql(p, "UTF-8")) known_to_be_utf8 = utf8locale = TRUE;
      if (streql(p, "ISO-8859-1")) known_to_be_latin1 = latin1locale = TRUE;
      if (R_strieql(p, "ISO8859-1")) known_to_be_latin1 = latin1locale = TRUE;
#if __APPLE__
      /* On Darwin 'regular' locales such as 'en_US' are UTF-8 (hence
         MB_CUR_MAX == 6), but CODESET is "" */
      if (*p == 0 && MB_CUR_MAX == 6)
          known_to_be_utf8 = utf8locale = TRUE;
#endif
    }
#endif
#ifdef SUPPORT_MBCS
    mbcslocale = MB_CUR_MAX > 1;
#endif
#ifdef Win32
    {
      char *ctype = setlocale(LC_CTYPE, NULL), *p;
      p = strrchr(ctype, '.');
      if (p && isdigit(p[1])) localeCP = atoi(p+1); else localeCP = 0;
      /* Not 100% correct, but CP1252 is a superset */
      known_to_be_latin1 = latin1locale = (localeCP == 1252);
    }
#endif
#if defined(Win32) && defined(SUPPORT_UTF8_WIN32)
    utf8locale = mbcslocale = TRUE;
#endif
}

/*  date
 *
 *  Return the current date in a standard format.  This uses standard
 *  POSIX calls which should be available on each platform.  We should
 *  perhaps check this in the configure script.
 */
/* BDR 2000/7/20.
 *  time and ctime are in fact ANSI C calls, so we don't check them.
 */
static char *R_Date(void)
{
    time_t t;
    static char s[26];        /* own space */

    time(&t);
    strcpy(s, ctime(&t));
    s[24] = '\0';       /* overwriting the final \n */
    return s;
}

SEXP attribute_hidden do_date(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    checkArity(op, args);
    return mkString(R_Date());
}

/*  file.show
 *
 *  Display file(s) so that a user can view it.  The function calls
 *  "R_ShowFiles" which is a platform-dependent hook that arranges
 *  for the file(s) to be displayed.
 */

SEXP attribute_hidden do_fileshow(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    SEXP fn, tl, hd, pg;
    const char **f, **h, *t, *pager;
    Rboolean dl;
    int i, n;

    checkArity(op, args);
    fn = CAR(args); args = CDR(args);
    hd = CAR(args); args = CDR(args);
    tl = CAR(args); args = CDR(args);
    dl = (Rboolean) asLogical(CAR(args)); args = CDR(args);
    pg = CAR(args);
    n = 0;              /* -Wall */
    if (!isString(fn) || (n = length(fn)) < 1)
      error(_("invalid filename specification"));
    if (!isString(hd) || length(hd) != n)
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "headers");
    if (!isString(tl))
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "title");
    if (!isString(pg))
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "pager");
    f = (const char**) R_alloc(n, sizeof(char*));
    h = (const char**) R_alloc(n, sizeof(char*));
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      SEXP el = STRING_ELT(fn, 0);
      if (!isNull(el))
#ifdef Win32
          f[i] = acopy_string(reEnc(CHAR(el), getCharCE(el), CE_UTF8, 1));
#else
          f[i] = acopy_string(translateChar(el));
#endif
      else
          f[i] = "";
      if (!isNull(STRING_ELT(hd, i)))
          h[i] = acopy_string(translateChar(STRING_ELT(hd, i)));
      else
          h[i] = "";
    }
    if (length(tl) >= 1 || !isNull(STRING_ELT(tl, 0)))
      t = acopy_string(translateChar(STRING_ELT(tl, 0)));
    else
      t = "";
    if (length(pg) >= 1 || !isNull(STRING_ELT(pg, 0))) {
      SEXP pg0 = STRING_ELT(pg, 0);
#ifdef Win32
      pager = acopy_string(reEnc(CHAR(pg0), getCharCE(pg0), CE_UTF8, 1));
#else
      pager = acopy_string(CHAR(pg0));
#endif
    } else
      pager = "";
    R_ShowFiles(n, f, h, t, dl, pager);
    return R_NilValue;
}

/*  file.edit
 *
 *  Open a file in a text editor. The function calls
 *  "R_EditFiles" which is a platform dependent hook that invokes
 *  the given editor.
 *
 */


SEXP attribute_hidden do_fileedit(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    SEXP fn, ti, ed;
    const char **f, **title, *editor;
    int i, n;

    checkArity(op, args);
    fn = CAR(args); args = CDR(args);
    ti = CAR(args); args = CDR(args);
    ed = CAR(args);

    n = length(fn);
    if (!isString(ed))
      error(_("invalid '%s' specification"), "editor");
    if (n > 0) {
      if (!isString(fn))
          error(_("invalid '%s' specification"), "filename");
      f = (const char**) R_alloc(n, sizeof(char*));
      title = (const char**) R_alloc(n, sizeof(char*));
      /* FIXME convert to UTF-8 on Windows */
      for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
          SEXP el = STRING_ELT(fn, 0);
          if (!isNull(el))
#ifdef Win32
            f[i] = acopy_string(reEnc(CHAR(el), getCharCE(el), CE_UTF8, 1));
#else
            f[i] = acopy_string(translateChar(el));
#endif
          else
            f[i] = "";
          if (!isNull(STRING_ELT(ti, i)))
            title[i] = acopy_string(translateChar(STRING_ELT(ti, i)));
          else
            title[i] = "";
      }
    }
    else {  /* open a new file for editing */
      n = 1;
      f = (const char**) R_alloc(1, sizeof(char*));
      f[0] = "";
      title = (const char**) R_alloc(1, sizeof(char*));
      title[0] = "";
    }
    if (length(ed) >= 1 || !isNull(STRING_ELT(ed, 0))) {
      SEXP ed0 = STRING_ELT(ed, 0);
#ifdef Win32
      editor = acopy_string(reEnc(CHAR(ed0), getCharCE(ed0), CE_UTF8, 1));
#else
      editor = acopy_string(translateChar(ed0));
#endif
    } else
      editor = "";
    R_EditFiles(n, f, title, editor);
    return R_NilValue;
}


/*  append.file
 *
 *  Given two file names as arguments and arranges for
 *  the second file to be appended to the second.
 *  op = 2 is codeFiles.append.
 */

#if defined(BUFSIZ) && (BUFSIZ > 512)
/* OS's buffer size in stdio.h, probably.
   Windows has 512, Solaris 1024, glibc 8192
 */
# define APPENDBUFSIZE BUFSIZ
#else
# define APPENDBUFSIZE 512
#endif

static int R_AppendFile(SEXP file1, SEXP file2)
{
    FILE *fp1, *fp2;
    char buf[APPENDBUFSIZE];
    int nchar, status = 0;
    if ((fp1 = RC_fopen(file1, "ab", TRUE)) == NULL) {
      return 0;
    }
    if ((fp2 = RC_fopen(file2, "rb", TRUE)) == NULL) {
      fclose(fp1);
      return 0;
    }
    while ((nchar = fread(buf, 1, APPENDBUFSIZE, fp2)) == APPENDBUFSIZE)
      if (fwrite(buf, 1, APPENDBUFSIZE, fp1) != APPENDBUFSIZE) {
          goto append_error;
      }
    if (fwrite(buf, 1, nchar, fp1) != nchar) {
      goto append_error;
    }
    status = 1;
 append_error:
    if (status == 0)
      warning(_("write error during file append"));
    fclose(fp1);
    fclose(fp2);
    return status;
}

SEXP attribute_hidden do_fileappend(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    SEXP f1, f2, ans;
    int i, n, n1, n2;
    checkArity(op, args);
    f1 = CAR(args); n1 = length(f1);
    f2 = CADR(args); n2 = length(f2);
    if (!isString(f1))
      error(_("invalid first filename"));
    if (!isString(f2))
      error(_("invalid second filename"));
    if (n1 < 1)
      error(_("nothing to append to"));
    if (PRIMVAL(op) > 0 && n1 > 1)
      error(_("'outFile' must be a single file"));
    if (n2 < 1)
      return allocVector(LGLSXP, 0);
    n = (n1 > n2) ? n1 : n2;
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(LGLSXP, n)); /* all FALSE */
    if (n1 == 1) { /* common case */
      FILE *fp1, *fp2;
      char buf[APPENDBUFSIZE];
      int nchar, status = 0;
      if (STRING_ELT(f1, 0) == NA_STRING ||
          !(fp1 = RC_fopen(STRING_ELT(f1, 0), "ab", TRUE)))
         goto done;
      for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
          status = 0;
          if (STRING_ELT(f2, i) == NA_STRING ||
             !(fp2 = RC_fopen(STRING_ELT(f2, i), "rb", TRUE))) continue;
          while ((nchar = fread(buf, 1, APPENDBUFSIZE, fp2)) == APPENDBUFSIZE)
            if (fwrite(buf, 1, APPENDBUFSIZE, fp1) != APPENDBUFSIZE)
                goto append_error;
          if (fwrite(buf, 1, nchar, fp1) != nchar) goto append_error;
          if (PRIMVAL(op) == 1 && buf[nchar - 1] != '\n') {
            if (fwrite("\n", 1, 1, fp1) != 1) goto append_error;
          }

          status = 1;
      append_error:
          if (status == 0)
            warning(_("write error during file append"));
          LOGICAL(ans)[i] = status;
          fclose(fp2);
      }
      fclose(fp1);
    } else {
      for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
          if (STRING_ELT(f1, i%n1) == R_NilValue ||
            STRING_ELT(f2, i%n2) == R_NilValue)
            LOGICAL(ans)[i] = 0;
          else
            LOGICAL(ans)[i] =
                R_AppendFile(STRING_ELT(f1, i%n1), STRING_ELT(f2, i%n2));
      }
    }
done:
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return ans;
}

SEXP attribute_hidden do_filecreate(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    SEXP fn, ans;
    FILE *fp;
    int i, n, show;

    checkArity(op, args);
    fn = CAR(args);
    if (!isString(fn))
      error(_("invalid filename argument"));
    show = asLogical(CADR(args));
    if (show == NA_LOGICAL) show = 0;
    n = length(fn);
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(LGLSXP, n));
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      LOGICAL(ans)[i] = 0;
      if (STRING_ELT(fn, i) == NA_STRING) continue;
      if ((fp = RC_fopen(STRING_ELT(fn, i), "w", TRUE)) != NULL) {
          LOGICAL(ans)[i] = 1;
          fclose(fp);
      } else if (show) {
#ifdef HAVE_STRERROR
          warning(_("cannot create file '%s', reason '%s'"),
                CHAR(STRING_ELT(fn, i)), strerror(errno));
#else
          warning(_("cannot create file '%s'"), CHAR(STRING_ELT(fn, i)));
#endif
      }
    }
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return ans;
}

SEXP attribute_hidden do_fileremove(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    SEXP f, ans;
    int i, n;
    checkArity(op, args);
    f = CAR(args);
    if (!isString(f))
      error(_("invalid first filename"));
    n = length(f);
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(LGLSXP, n));
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      if (STRING_ELT(f, i) != NA_STRING) {
          LOGICAL(ans)[i] =
#ifdef Win32
            (_wremove(filenameToWchar(STRING_ELT(f, i), TRUE)) == 0);
#else
            (remove(R_ExpandFileName(translateChar(STRING_ELT(f, i)))) == 0);
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_STRERROR
          if(!LOGICAL(ans)[i])
            warning(_("cannot remove file '%s', reason '%s'"),
                  CHAR(STRING_ELT(f, i)), strerror(errno));
#endif
      } else LOGICAL(ans)[i] = FALSE;
    }
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return ans;
}

#ifdef HAVE_UNISTD_H
#include <unistd.h> /* for symlink */
#endif

SEXP attribute_hidden do_filesymlink(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    SEXP f1, f2;
    int n, n1, n2;
#ifdef HAVE_SYMLINK
    SEXP ans;
    int i;
    char from[PATH_MAX], to[PATH_MAX];
    const char *p;
#endif
    checkArity(op, args);
    f1 = CAR(args); n1 = length(f1);
    f2 = CADR(args); n2 = length(f2);
    if (!isString(f1))
      error(_("invalid first filename"));
    if (!isString(f2))
      error(_("invalid second filename"));
    if (n1 < 1)
      error(_("nothing to link"));
    if (n2 < 1)
      return allocVector(LGLSXP, 0);
    n = (n1 > n2) ? n1 : n2;
#ifdef HAVE_SYMLINK  /* Not (yet) Windows */
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(LGLSXP, n));
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      if (STRING_ELT(f1, i%n1) == NA_STRING ||
          STRING_ELT(f2, i%n2) == NA_STRING)
          LOGICAL(ans)[i] = 0;
      else {
          p = R_ExpandFileName(translateChar(STRING_ELT(f1, i%n1)));
          if (strlen(p) >= PATH_MAX - 1) {
            LOGICAL(ans)[i] = 0;
            continue;
          }
          strcpy(from, p);
          p = R_ExpandFileName(translateChar(STRING_ELT(f2, i%n2)));
          if (strlen(p) >= PATH_MAX - 1) {
            LOGICAL(ans)[i] = 0;
            continue;
          }
          strcpy(to, p);
          /* Rprintf("linking %s to %s\n", from, to); */
          LOGICAL(ans)[i] = symlink(from, to) == 0;
          if(!LOGICAL(ans)[i]) {
#ifdef HAVE_STRERROR
            warning(_("cannot symlink '%s' to '%s', reason '%s'"),
                  from, to, strerror(errno));
#else
            warning(_("cannot symlink '%s' to '%s'"), from, to);
#endif
          }
      }
    }
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return ans;
#else
    warning(_("symlinks are not supported on this platform"));
    return allocVector(LGLSXP, n);
#endif
}

#ifdef Win32
int Rwin_rename(char *from, char *to);  /* in src/gnuwin32/extra.c */
int Rwin_wrename(const wchar_t *from, const wchar_t *to);
#endif

SEXP attribute_hidden do_filerename(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
#ifdef Win32
    wchar_t from[PATH_MAX], to[PATH_MAX];
    const wchar_t *w;
#else
    char from[PATH_MAX], to[PATH_MAX];
    const char *p;
    int res;
#endif

    checkArity(op, args);
    if (TYPEOF(CAR(args)) != STRSXP || LENGTH(CAR(args)) != 1)
      error(_("'source' must be a single string"));
    if (TYPEOF(CADR(args)) != STRSXP || LENGTH(CADR(args)) != 1)
      error(_("'destination' must be a single string"));

    if (STRING_ELT(CAR(args), 0) == NA_STRING ||
      STRING_ELT(CADR(args), 0) == NA_STRING)
      error(_("missing values are not allowed"));
#ifdef Win32
    w = filenameToWchar(STRING_ELT(CAR(args), 0), TRUE);
    if (wcslen(w) >= PATH_MAX - 1)
      error(_("expanded source name too long"));
    wcsncpy(from, w, PATH_MAX - 1);
    w = filenameToWchar(STRING_ELT(CADR(args), 0), TRUE);
    if (wcslen(w) >= PATH_MAX - 1)
      error(_("expanded destination name too long"));
    wcsncpy(to, w, PATH_MAX - 1);
    return Rwin_wrename(from, to) == 0 ? mkTrue() : mkFalse();
#else
    p = R_ExpandFileName(translateChar(STRING_ELT(CAR(args), 0)));
    if (strlen(p) >= PATH_MAX - 1)
      error(_("expanded source name too long"));
    strncpy(from, p, PATH_MAX - 1);
    p = R_ExpandFileName(translateChar(STRING_ELT(CADR(args), 0)));
    if (strlen(p) >= PATH_MAX - 1)
      error(_("expanded destination name too long"));
    strncpy(to, p, PATH_MAX - 1);
    res = rename(from, to);
    if(res) {
#ifdef HAVE_STRERROR
      warning(_("cannot rename file '%s' to '%s', reason '%s'"),
            from, to, strerror(errno));
#else
      warning(_("cannot rename file '%s' to '%s'"), from, to);
#endif
    }
    return res == 0 ? mkTrue() : mkFalse();
#endif
}

#ifdef HAVE_SYS_TYPES_H
# include <sys/types.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_SYS_STAT_H
# include <sys/stat.h>
#endif

# if defined(Unix) && defined(HAVE_PWD_H) && defined(HAVE_GRP_H) \
  && defined(HAVE_GETPWUID) && defined(HAVE_GETGRGID)
#  include <pwd.h>
#  include <grp.h>
#  define UNIX_EXTRAS 1
# endif

#ifdef Win32
# define WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN 1
# include <windows.h>
# ifndef SCS_64BIT_BINARY
#  define SCS_64BIT_BINARY 6
# endif
#endif

SEXP attribute_hidden do_fileinfo(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    SEXP fn, ans, ansnames, fsize, mtime, ctime, atime, isdir,
      mode, xxclass;
#ifdef UNIX_EXTRAS
    SEXP uid, gid, uname, grname;
    struct passwd *stpwd;
    struct group *stgrp;
#endif
    int i, n;
#ifdef Win32
    SEXP exe;
    struct _stati64 sb;
#else
    struct stat sb;
#endif

    checkArity(op, args);
    fn = CAR(args);
    if (!isString(fn))
      error(_("invalid filename argument"));
    n = length(fn);
#ifdef UNIX_EXTRAS
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(VECSXP, 10));
    PROTECT(ansnames = allocVector(STRSXP, 10));
#elif defined(Win32)
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(VECSXP, 7));
    PROTECT(ansnames = allocVector(STRSXP, 7));
#else
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(VECSXP, 6));
    PROTECT(ansnames = allocVector(STRSXP, 6));
#endif
    fsize = SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 0, allocVector(REALSXP, n));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, 0, mkChar("size"));
    isdir = SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 1, allocVector(LGLSXP, n));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, 1, mkChar("isdir"));
    mode  = SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 2, allocVector(INTSXP, n));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, 2, mkChar("mode"));
    mtime = SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 3, allocVector(REALSXP, n));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, 3, mkChar("mtime"));
    ctime = SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 4, allocVector(REALSXP, n));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, 4, mkChar("ctime"));
    atime = SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 5, allocVector(REALSXP, n));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, 5, mkChar("atime"));
#ifdef UNIX_EXTRAS
    uid = SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 6, allocVector(INTSXP, n));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, 6, mkChar("uid"));
    gid = SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 7, allocVector(INTSXP, n));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, 7, mkChar("gid"));
    uname = SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 8, allocVector(STRSXP, n));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, 8, mkChar("uname"));
    grname = SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 9, allocVector(STRSXP, n));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, 9, mkChar("grname"));
#endif
#ifdef Win32
    exe = SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 6, allocVector(STRSXP, n));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, 6, mkChar("exe"));
#endif
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
#ifdef Win32
      const wchar_t *wfn = filenameToWchar(STRING_ELT(fn, i), TRUE);
#else
      const char *efn = R_ExpandFileName(translateChar(STRING_ELT(fn, i)));
#endif
      if (STRING_ELT(fn, i) != NA_STRING &&
#ifdef Win32
          _wstati64(wfn, &sb)
#else
          stat(efn, &sb)
#endif
          == 0) {
          REAL(fsize)[i] = (double) sb.st_size;
          LOGICAL(isdir)[i] = (sb.st_mode & S_IFDIR) > 0;
          INTEGER(mode)[i]  = (int) sb.st_mode & 0007777;
          REAL(mtime)[i] = (double) sb.st_mtime;
          REAL(ctime)[i] = (double) sb.st_ctime;
          REAL(atime)[i] = (double) sb.st_atime;
#ifdef UNIX_EXTRAS
          INTEGER(uid)[i] = (int) sb.st_uid;
          INTEGER(gid)[i] = (int) sb.st_gid;
          stpwd = getpwuid(sb.st_uid);
          if (stpwd) SET_STRING_ELT(uname, i, mkChar(stpwd->pw_name));
          else SET_STRING_ELT(uname, i, NA_STRING);
          stgrp = getgrgid(sb.st_gid);
          if (stgrp) SET_STRING_ELT(grname, i, mkChar(stgrp->gr_name));
          else SET_STRING_ELT(grname, i, NA_STRING);
#endif
#ifdef Win32
          {
            char *s="no";
            DWORD type;
            if (GetBinaryTypeW(wfn, &type))
                switch(type) {
                case SCS_64BIT_BINARY:
                  s = "win64";
                  break;
                case SCS_32BIT_BINARY:
                  s = "win32";
                  break;
                case SCS_DOS_BINARY:
                case SCS_PIF_BINARY:
                  s = "msdos";
                  break;
                case SCS_WOW_BINARY:
                  s = "win16";
                  break;
                default:
                  s = "unknown";
                }
            SET_STRING_ELT(exe, i, mkChar(s));
          }
#endif
      } else {
          REAL(fsize)[i] = NA_REAL;
          LOGICAL(isdir)[i] = NA_INTEGER;
          INTEGER(mode)[i]  = NA_INTEGER;
          REAL(mtime)[i] = NA_REAL;
          REAL(ctime)[i] = NA_REAL;
          REAL(atime)[i] = NA_REAL;
#ifdef UNIX_EXTRAS
          INTEGER(uid)[i] = NA_INTEGER;
          INTEGER(gid)[i] = NA_INTEGER;
          SET_STRING_ELT(uname, i, NA_STRING);
          SET_STRING_ELT(grname, i, NA_STRING);
#endif
#ifdef Win32
          SET_STRING_ELT(exe, i, NA_STRING);
#endif
      }
    }
    setAttrib(ans, R_NamesSymbol, ansnames);
    PROTECT(xxclass = mkString("octmode"));
    classgets(mode, xxclass);
    UNPROTECT(3);
    return ans;
}

/* No longer required by POSIX, but maybe on earlier OSes */
#ifdef HAVE_SYS_TYPES_H
# include <sys/types.h>
#endif

#if HAVE_DIRENT_H
# include <dirent.h>
#elif HAVE_SYS_NDIR_H
# include <sys/ndir.h>
#elif HAVE_SYS_DIR_H
# include <sys/dir.h>
#elif HAVE_NDIR_H
# include <ndir.h>
#endif

#define CBUFSIZE 2*PATH_MAX+1
static SEXP filename(const char *dir, const char *file)
{
    SEXP ans;
    char cbuf[CBUFSIZE];
    if (dir) {
      snprintf(cbuf, CBUFSIZE, "%s%s%s", dir, R_FileSep, file);
      ans = mkChar(cbuf);
    } else {
      snprintf(cbuf, CBUFSIZE, "%s", file);
      ans = mkChar(cbuf);
    }
    return ans;
}

#include "Rregex.h"

static void count_files(const char *dnp, int *count,
                  Rboolean allfiles, Rboolean recursive,
                  int pattern, regex_t reg)
{
    DIR *dir;
    struct dirent *de;
    char p[PATH_MAX];
#ifdef Windows
    /* For consistency with other functions */
    struct _stati64 sb;
#else
    struct stat sb;
#endif

    if (strlen(dnp) >= PATH_MAX)  /* should not happen! */
      error(_("directory/folder path name too long"));
    if ((dir = opendir(dnp)) == NULL) {
      warning(_("list.files: '%s' is not a readable directory"), dnp);
    } else {
      while ((de = readdir(dir))) {
          if (allfiles || !R_HiddenFile(de->d_name)) {
            if (recursive) {
                snprintf(p, PATH_MAX, "%s%s%s", dnp,
                       R_FileSep, de->d_name);
#ifdef Windows
                _stati64(p, &sb);
#else
                stat(p, &sb);
#endif
                if ((sb.st_mode & S_IFDIR) > 0) {
                  if (strcmp(de->d_name, ".") && strcmp(de->d_name, ".."))
                        count_files(p, count, allfiles, recursive,
                                  pattern, reg);
                  continue;
                }
            }
            if (pattern) {
                if (regexec(&reg, de->d_name, 0, NULL, 0) == 0) (*count)++;
            } else (*count)++;
          }
      }
      closedir(dir);
    }
}

static void list_files(const char *dnp, const char *stem, int *count, SEXP ans,
                   Rboolean allfiles, Rboolean recursive,
                   int pattern, regex_t reg)
{
    DIR *dir;
    struct dirent *de;
    char p[PATH_MAX], stem2[PATH_MAX];
#ifdef Windows
    /* > 2GB files might be skipped otherwise */
    struct _stati64 sb;
#else
    struct stat sb;
#endif

    if ((dir = opendir(dnp)) != NULL) {
      while ((de = readdir(dir))) {
          if (allfiles || !R_HiddenFile(de->d_name)) {
            if (recursive) {
                snprintf(p, PATH_MAX, "%s%s%s", dnp,
                       R_FileSep, de->d_name);
#ifdef Windows
                _stati64(p, &sb);
#else
                stat(p, &sb);
#endif
                if ((sb.st_mode & S_IFDIR) > 0) {
                  if (strcmp(de->d_name, ".") &&
                      strcmp(de->d_name, "..")) {
                      if (stem)
                        snprintf(stem2, PATH_MAX, "%s%s%s", stem,
                               R_FileSep, de->d_name);
                      else
                        strcpy(stem2, de->d_name);
                      list_files(p, stem2, count, ans, allfiles,
                               recursive, pattern, reg);
                  }
                  continue;
                }
            }
            if (pattern) {
                if (regexec(&reg, de->d_name, 0, NULL, 0) == 0)
                  SET_STRING_ELT(ans, (*count)++,
                               filename(stem, de->d_name));
            } else
                SET_STRING_ELT(ans, (*count)++,
                           filename(stem, de->d_name));
          }
      }
      closedir(dir);
    }
}

SEXP attribute_hidden do_listfiles(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    SEXP d, p, ans;
    int allfiles, fullnames, count, pattern, recursive, igcase, flags;
    int i, ndir;
    const char *dnp;
    regex_t reg;

    checkArity(op, args);
    d = CAR(args);  args = CDR(args);
    if (!isString(d))
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "directory");
    p = CAR(args);  args = CDR(args);
    pattern = 0;
    if (isString(p) && length(p) >= 1 && STRING_ELT(p, 0) != NA_STRING)
      pattern = 1;
    else if (!isNull(p) && !(isString(p) && length(p) < 1))
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "pattern");
    allfiles = asLogical(CAR(args)); args = CDR(args);
    fullnames = asLogical(CAR(args)); args = CDR(args);
    recursive = asLogical(CAR(args)); args = CDR(args);
    igcase = asLogical(CAR(args));
    ndir = length(d);
    flags = REG_EXTENDED;
    if (igcase) flags |= REG_ICASE;

    if (pattern && regcomp(&reg, translateChar(STRING_ELT(p, 0)), flags))
      error(_("invalid 'pattern' regular expression"));
    count = 0;
    for (i = 0; i < ndir ; i++) {
      if (STRING_ELT(d, i) == NA_STRING) continue;
      dnp = R_ExpandFileName(translateChar(STRING_ELT(d, i)));
      count_files(dnp, &count, allfiles, recursive, pattern, reg);
    }
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(STRSXP, count));
    count = 0;
    for (i = 0; i < ndir ; i++) {
      if (STRING_ELT(d, i) == NA_STRING) continue;
      dnp = R_ExpandFileName(translateChar(STRING_ELT(d, i)));
      list_files(dnp, fullnames ? dnp : NULL, &count, ans, allfiles,
               recursive, pattern, reg);
    }
    if (pattern)
      regfree(&reg);
    ssort(STRING_PTR(ans), count);
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return ans;
}

SEXP attribute_hidden do_Rhome(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    char *path;
    checkArity(op, args);
    if (!(path = R_HomeDir()))
      error(_("unable to determine R home location"));
    return mkString(path);
}

#ifdef Win32
static Rboolean attribute_hidden R_WFileExists(const wchar_t *path)
{
    struct _stat sb;
    return _wstat(path, &sb) == 0;
}
#endif

SEXP attribute_hidden do_fileexists(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    SEXP file, ans;
    int i, nfile;
    checkArity(op, args);
    if (!isString(file = CAR(args)))
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "file");
    nfile = length(file);
    ans = allocVector(LGLSXP, nfile);
    for (i = 0; i < nfile; i++) {
      LOGICAL(ans)[i] = 0;
      if (STRING_ELT(file, i) != NA_STRING) {
#ifdef Win32
          /* Package XML sends arbitrarily long strings to file.exists! */
          int len = strlen(CHAR(STRING_ELT(file, i)));
          if (len > MAX_PATH)
            LOGICAL(ans)[i] = FALSE;
          else
            LOGICAL(ans)[i] =
                R_WFileExists(filenameToWchar(STRING_ELT(file, i), TRUE));
#else
          LOGICAL(ans)[i] = R_FileExists(translateChar(STRING_ELT(file, i)));
#endif
      } else LOGICAL(ans)[i] = FALSE;
    }
    return ans;
}

/* <FIXME> can \n or \r occur as part of a MBCS extra bytes?
   Not that I know of */
static int filbuf(char *buf, FILE *fp)
{
    int c;
    while ((c = fgetc(fp)) != EOF) {
      if (c == '\n' || c == '\r') {
          *buf = '\0';
          return 1;
      }
      *buf++ = c;
    }
    return 0;
}

SEXP attribute_hidden do_indexsearch(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
/* index.search(topic, path, file, .Platform$file.sep, type) */
    SEXP topic, path, indexname, sep, type;
    char linebuf[256], topicbuf[256], *p, ctype[256];
    int i, npath, ltopicbuf;
    FILE *fp;

    checkArity(op, args);
    topic = CAR(args); args = CDR(args);
    if (!isString(topic) || length(topic) < 1 || isNull(topic))
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "topic");
    path = CAR(args); args = CDR(args);
    if (!isString(path) || length(path) < 1 || isNull(path))
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "path");
    indexname = CAR(args); args = CDR(args);
    if (!isString(indexname) || length(indexname) < 1 || isNull(indexname))
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "indexname");
    sep = CAR(args); args = CDR(args);
    if (!isString(sep) || length(sep) < 1 || isNull(sep))
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "sep");
    type = CAR(args);
    if (!isString(type) || length(type) < 1 || isNull(type))
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "type");
    strcpy(ctype, CHAR(STRING_ELT(type, 0)));
    snprintf(topicbuf, 256, "%s\t", translateChar(STRING_ELT(topic, 0)));
    ltopicbuf = strlen(topicbuf);
    npath = length(path);
    for (i = 0; i < npath; i++) {
      snprintf(linebuf, 256, "%s%s%s%s%s",
            translateChar(STRING_ELT(path, i)),
            CHAR(STRING_ELT(sep, 0)),
            "help", CHAR(STRING_ELT(sep, 0)),
            CHAR(STRING_ELT(indexname, 0)));
      if ((fp = R_fopen(R_ExpandFileName(linebuf), "rt")) != NULL){
          while (filbuf(linebuf, fp)) {
            if (strncmp(linebuf, topicbuf, ltopicbuf) == 0) {
                p = &linebuf[ltopicbuf - 1];
                while (isspace((int)*p)) p++;
                fclose(fp);
                if (!strcmp(ctype, "html"))
                  snprintf(topicbuf, 256, "%s%s%s%s%s%s",
                        translateChar(STRING_ELT(path, i)),
                        CHAR(STRING_ELT(sep, 0)),
                        "html", CHAR(STRING_ELT(sep, 0)),
                        p, ".html");
                else if (!strcmp(ctype, "R-ex"))
                  snprintf(topicbuf, 256, "%s%s%s%s%s%s",
                        translateChar(STRING_ELT(path, i)),
                        CHAR(STRING_ELT(sep, 0)),
                        "R-ex", CHAR(STRING_ELT(sep, 0)),
                        p, ".R");
                else if (!strcmp(ctype, "latex"))
                  snprintf(topicbuf, 256, "%s%s%s%s%s%s",
                        translateChar(STRING_ELT(path, i)),
                        CHAR(STRING_ELT(sep, 0)),
                        "latex", CHAR(STRING_ELT(sep, 0)),
                        p, ".tex");
                else /* type = "help" */
                  snprintf(topicbuf, 256, "%s%s%s%s%s",
                        translateChar(STRING_ELT(path, i)),
                        CHAR(STRING_ELT(sep, 0)),
                        ctype, CHAR(STRING_ELT(sep, 0)), p);
                return mkString(topicbuf);
            }
          }
          fclose(fp);
      }
    }
    return mkString("");
}

#define CHOOSEBUFSIZE 1024

SEXP attribute_hidden do_filechoose(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    int _new, len;
    char buf[CHOOSEBUFSIZE];
    checkArity(op, args);
    _new = asLogical(CAR(args));
    if ((len = R_ChooseFile(_new, buf, CHOOSEBUFSIZE)) == 0)
      error(_("file choice cancelled"));
    if (len >= CHOOSEBUFSIZE - 1)
      error(_("file name too long"));
#ifdef WIn32
    return mkString(reEnc(R_ExpandFileName(buf), CE_NATIVE, CE_UTF8, 1));
#else
    return mkString(R_ExpandFileName(buf));
#endif
}


/* needed for access, and perhaps for realpath */
#ifdef HAVE_UNISTD_H
# include <unistd.h>
#endif

#ifdef Win32
extern int winAccessW(const wchar_t *path, int mode);
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_ACCESS
SEXP attribute_hidden do_fileaccess(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    SEXP fn, ans;
    int i, n, mode, modemask;

    checkArity(op, args);
    fn = CAR(args);
    if (!isString(fn))
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "names");
    n = length(fn);
    mode = asInteger(CADR(args));
    if (mode < 0 || mode > 7) error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "mode");
    modemask = 0;
    if (mode & 1) modemask |= X_OK;
    if (mode & 2) modemask |= W_OK;
    if (mode & 4) modemask |= R_OK;
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(INTSXP, n));
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
      if (STRING_ELT(fn, i) != NA_STRING) {
          INTEGER(ans)[i] =
#ifdef Win32
            winAccessW(filenameToWchar(STRING_ELT(fn, i), TRUE), modemask);
#else
            access(R_ExpandFileName(translateChar(STRING_ELT(fn, i))),
                   modemask);
#endif
      } else INTEGER(ans)[i] = FALSE;
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return ans;
}
#else
SEXP attribute_hidden do_fileaccess(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    error(_("file.access() is not implemented on this system"));
    return R_NilValue;        /* -Wall */
}
#endif

#ifdef Win32
#include <windows.h>

static int R_rmdir(const wchar_t *dir)
{
    wchar_t tmp[MAX_PATH];
    GetShortPathNameW(dir, tmp, MAX_PATH);
    /* printf("removing directory %ls\n", tmp); */
    return _wrmdir(tmp);
}

static int R_unlink(wchar_t *name, int recursive)
{
    if (wcscmp(name, L".") == 0 || wcscmp(name, L"..") == 0) return 0;
    /* printf("R_unlink(%ls)\n", name); */
    if (recursive) {
      _WDIR *dir;
      struct _wdirent *de;
      wchar_t p[PATH_MAX];
      struct _stat sb;
      int n, ans = 0;

      _wstat(name, &sb);
      if ((sb.st_mode & S_IFDIR) > 0) { /* a directory */
          if ((dir = _wopendir(name)) != NULL) {
            while ((de = _wreaddir(dir))) {
                if (!wcscmp(de->d_name, L".") || !wcscmp(de->d_name, L".."))
                  continue;
                /* On Windows we need to worry about trailing seps */
                n = wcslen(name);
                if (name[n] == L'/' || name[n] == L'\\') {
                  wcscpy(p, name); wcscat(p, de->d_name);
                } else {
                  wcscpy(p, name); wcscat(p, L"/"); wcscat(p, de->d_name);
                }
                /* printf("stat-ing %ls\n", p); */
                _wstat(p, &sb);
                if ((sb.st_mode & S_IFDIR) > 0) { /* a directory */
                  /* printf("is a directory\n"); */
                  ans += R_unlink(p, recursive);
                } else
                  ans += (_wunlink(p) == 0) ? 0 : 1;
            }
            _wclosedir(dir);
          } else { /* we were unable to read a dir */
            ans++;
          }
          ans += (R_rmdir(name) == 0) ? 0 : 1;
          return ans;
      }
      /* drop through */
    }
    return _wunlink(name) == 0 ? 0 : 1;
}

void R_CleanTempDir(void)
{
    if (Sys_TempDir) {
      wchar_t *w;
      int n = strlen(Sys_TempDir);
      /* Windows cannot delete the current working directory */
      SetCurrentDirectory(R_HomeDir());
      w = (wchar_t *) alloca(2*(n+1));
      mbstowcs(w, Sys_TempDir, n+1);
      R_unlink(w, 1);
    }
}
#else
static int R_unlink(char *name, int recursive)
{
    if (streql(name, ".") || streql(name, "..")) return 0;
    if (recursive) {
      DIR *dir;
      struct dirent *de;
      char p[PATH_MAX];
      struct stat sb;
      int n, ans = 0;

      stat(name, &sb);
      if ((sb.st_mode & S_IFDIR) > 0) { /* a directory */
          if ((dir = opendir(name)) != NULL) {
            while ((de = readdir(dir))) {
                if (streql(de->d_name, ".") || streql(de->d_name, ".."))
                  continue;
                /* On Windows we need to worry about trailing seps */
                n = strlen(name);
                if (name[n] == R_FileSep[0])
                  snprintf(p, PATH_MAX, "%s%s", name, de->d_name);
                else
                  snprintf(p, PATH_MAX, "%s%s%s", name, R_FileSep,
                         de->d_name);
                stat(p, &sb);
                if ((sb.st_mode & S_IFDIR) > 0) { /* a directory */
                  ans += R_unlink(p, recursive);
                } else
                  ans += (unlink(p) == 0) ? 0 : 1;
            }
            closedir(dir);
          } else { /* we were unable to read a dir */
            ans++;
          }
          ans += (rmdir(name) == 0) ? 0 : 1;
          return ans;
      }
      /* drop through */
    }
    return unlink(name) == 0 ? 0 : 1;
}
#endif

/* Note that wildcards are allowed in 'names' */
#ifdef Win32
# include <dos_wglob.h>
SEXP attribute_hidden do_unlink(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    SEXP  fn;
    int i, j, nfiles, res, failures = 0, recursive;
    const wchar_t *names;
    wglob_t globbuf;

    checkArity(op, args);
    fn = CAR(args);
    nfiles = length(fn);
    if (nfiles > 0) {
      if (!isString(fn))
          error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "x");
      recursive = asLogical(CADR(args));
      if (recursive == NA_LOGICAL)
          error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "recursive");
      for (i = 0; i < nfiles; i++) {
          if (STRING_ELT(fn, i) != NA_STRING) {
            names = filenameToWchar(STRING_ELT(fn, i), FALSE);
            res = dos_wglob(names, 0, NULL, &globbuf);
            if (res == GLOB_NOSPACE)
                error(_("internal out-of-memory condition"));
            for ( j = 0; j < globbuf.gl_pathc; j++)
                failures += R_unlink(globbuf.gl_pathv[j], recursive);
            dos_wglobfree(&globbuf);
          } else failures++;
      }
    }
    return ScalarInteger(failures ? 1 : 0);
}
#else
# if defined(HAVE_GLOB) && defined(HAVE_GLOB_H)
#  include <glob.h>
# endif

SEXP attribute_hidden do_unlink(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    SEXP  fn;
    int i, j, nfiles, res, failures = 0, recursive;
    const char *names;
#if defined(HAVE_GLOB)
    glob_t globbuf;
#endif

    checkArity(op, args);
    fn = CAR(args);
    nfiles = length(fn);
    if (nfiles > 0) {
      if (!isString(fn))
          error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "x");
      recursive = asLogical(CADR(args));
      if (recursive == NA_LOGICAL)
          error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "recursive");
      for (i = 0; i < nfiles; i++) {
          if (STRING_ELT(fn, i) != NA_STRING) {
            names = translateChar(STRING_ELT(fn, i));
#if defined(HAVE_GLOB)
            res = glob(names, 0, NULL, &globbuf);
# ifdef GLOB_ABORTED
            if (res == GLOB_ABORTED)
                warning(_("read error on '%s'"), names);
# endif
# ifdef GLOB_NOSPACE
            if (res == GLOB_NOSPACE)
                error(_("internal out-of-memory condition"));
# endif
            for ( j = 0; j < globbuf.gl_pathc; j++)
                failures += R_unlink(globbuf.gl_pathv[j], recursive);
            globfree(&globbuf);
          } else failures++;
#else /* HAVE_GLOB */
          failures += R_unlink(names, recursive);
#endif
      }
    }
    return ScalarInteger(failures ? 1 : 0);
}
#endif


SEXP attribute_hidden do_getlocale(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
#ifdef HAVE_LOCALE_H
    int cat;
    char *p = NULL;

    checkArity(op, args);
    cat = asInteger(CAR(args));
    if (cat == NA_INTEGER || cat < 0)
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "category");
    switch(cat) {
    case 1: cat = LC_ALL; break;
    case 2: cat = LC_COLLATE; break;
    case 3: cat = LC_CTYPE; break;
    case 4: cat = LC_MONETARY; break;
    case 5: cat = LC_NUMERIC; break;
    case 6: cat = LC_TIME; break;
#ifdef LC_MESSAGES
    case 7: cat = LC_MESSAGES; break;
#endif
#ifdef LC_PAPER
    case 8: cat = LC_PAPER; break;
#endif
#ifdef LC_MEASUREMENT
    case 9: cat = LC_MEASUREMENT; break;
#endif
    default: cat = NA_INTEGER;
    }
    if (cat != NA_INTEGER) p = setlocale(cat, NULL);
    return mkString(p ? p : "");
#else
    return R_NilValue;
#endif
}

extern void invalidate_cached_recodings(void);  /* from sysutils.c */

/* Locale specs are always ASCII */
SEXP attribute_hidden do_setlocale(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
#ifdef HAVE_LOCALE_H
    SEXP locale = CADR(args), ans;
    int cat;
    const char *p;

    checkArity(op, args);
    cat = asInteger(CAR(args));
    if (cat == NA_INTEGER || cat < 0)
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "category");
    if (!isString(locale) || LENGTH(locale) != 1)
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "locale");
    switch(cat) {
    case 1:
    {
      const char *l = CHAR(STRING_ELT(locale, 0));
      cat = LC_ALL;
      /* assume we can set LC_CTYPE iff we can set the rest */
      if ((p = setlocale(LC_CTYPE, l))) {
          setlocale(LC_COLLATE, l);
          setlocale(LC_MONETARY, l);
          setlocale(LC_TIME, l);
          /* Need to return value of LC_ALL */
          p = setlocale(cat, NULL);
      }
      break;
    }
    case 2:
      cat = LC_COLLATE;
      p = setlocale(cat, CHAR(STRING_ELT(locale, 0)));
      break;
    case 3:
      cat = LC_CTYPE;
      p = setlocale(cat, CHAR(STRING_ELT(locale, 0)));
      break;
    case 4:
      cat = LC_MONETARY;
      p = setlocale(cat, CHAR(STRING_ELT(locale, 0)));
      break;
    case 5:
      cat = LC_NUMERIC;
      warning(_("setting 'LC_NUMERIC' may cause R to function strangely"));
      p = setlocale(cat, CHAR(STRING_ELT(locale, 0)));
      break;
    case 6:
      cat = LC_TIME;
      p = setlocale(cat, CHAR(STRING_ELT(locale, 0)));
      break;
#if defined LC_MESSAGES && !defined Win32
/* this seems to exist in MinGW, but it does not work in Windows */
    case 7:
      cat = LC_MESSAGES;
      p = setlocale(cat, CHAR(STRING_ELT(locale, 0)));
      break;
#endif
#ifdef LC_PAPER
    case 8:
      cat = LC_PAPER;
      p = setlocale(cat, CHAR(STRING_ELT(locale, 0)));
      break;
#endif
#ifdef LC_MEASUREMENT
    case 9:
      cat = LC_MEASUREMENT;
      p = setlocale(cat, CHAR(STRING_ELT(locale, 0)));
      break;
#endif
    default:
      p = NULL; /* -Wall */
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "category");
    }
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(STRSXP, 1));
    if (p) SET_STRING_ELT(ans, 0, mkChar(p));
    else  {
      SET_STRING_ELT(ans, 0, mkChar(""));
      warning(_("OS reports request to set locale to \"%s\" cannot be honored"),
            CHAR(STRING_ELT(locale, 0)));
    }
    UNPROTECT(1);
    R_check_locale();
    invalidate_cached_recodings();
    return ans;
#else
    return R_NilValue;
#endif
}



SEXP attribute_hidden do_localeconv(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
#ifdef HAVE_LOCALE_H
    SEXP ans, ansnames;
    struct lconv *lc = localeconv();
    int i = 0;
    char buff[20];

    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(STRSXP, 18));
    PROTECT(ansnames = allocVector(STRSXP, 18));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(lc->decimal_point));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("decimal_point"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(lc->thousands_sep));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("thousands_sep"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(lc->grouping));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("grouping"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(lc->int_curr_symbol));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("int_curr_symbol"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(lc->currency_symbol));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("currency_symbol"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(lc->mon_decimal_point));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("mon_decimal_point"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(lc->mon_thousands_sep));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("mon_thousands_sep"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(lc->mon_grouping));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("mon_grouping"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(lc->positive_sign));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("positive_sign"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(lc->negative_sign));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("negative_sign"));
    sprintf(buff, "%d", (int)lc->int_frac_digits);
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(buff));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("int_frac_digits"));
    sprintf(buff, "%d", (int)lc->frac_digits);
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(buff));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("frac_digits"));
    sprintf(buff, "%d", (int)lc->p_cs_precedes);
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(buff));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("p_cs_precedes"));
    sprintf(buff, "%d", (int)lc->p_sep_by_space);
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(buff));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("p_sep_by_space"));
    sprintf(buff, "%d", (int)lc->n_cs_precedes);
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(buff));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("n_cs_precedes"));
    sprintf(buff, "%d", (int)lc->n_sep_by_space);
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(buff));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("n_sep_by_space"));
    sprintf(buff, "%d", (int)lc->p_sign_posn);
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(buff));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("p_sign_posn"));
    sprintf(buff, "%d", (int)lc->n_sign_posn);
    SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(buff));
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i++, mkChar("n_sign_posn"));
    setAttrib(ans, R_NamesSymbol, ansnames);
    UNPROTECT(2);
    return ans;
#else
    return R_NilValue;
#endif
}

/* .Internal function for path.expand */
SEXP attribute_hidden do_pathexpand(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    SEXP fn, ans;
    int i, n;

    checkArity(op, args);
    fn = CAR(args);
    if (!isString(fn))
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "path");
    n = length(fn);
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(STRSXP, n));
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      SEXP tmp = markKnown(R_ExpandFileName(translateChar(STRING_ELT(fn, i))),
                       STRING_ELT(fn, i));
      SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, tmp);
    }
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return ans;
}

#ifdef Unix
static int var_R_can_use_X11 = -1;

extern Rboolean R_access_X11(void); /* from src/unix/X11.c */

static Rboolean R_can_use_X11(void)
{
    if (var_R_can_use_X11 < 0) {
#ifdef HAVE_X11
      if (strcmp(R_GUIType, "none") != 0) {
          /* At this point we have permission to use the module, so try it */
          var_R_can_use_X11 = R_access_X11();
      } else {
          var_R_can_use_X11 = 0;
      }
#else
      var_R_can_use_X11 = 0;
#endif
    }

    return var_R_can_use_X11 > 0;
}
#endif


SEXP attribute_hidden do_capabilities(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    SEXP what, ans, ansnames;
    int i = 0;
#ifdef Unix
    int j = 0;
    Rboolean X11 = FALSE;
#endif

    checkArity(op, args);
    what = CAR(args);
    if (!isNull(what) && !isString(what))
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "what");

#if defined(Unix) && defined(HAVE_X11)
    /* Don't load the module and contact the X11 display
       unless it is necessary.
    */
    if (isNull(what)) X11 = R_can_use_X11();
    else
      for (j = 0; j < LENGTH(what); j++)
          if (streql(CHAR(STRING_ELT(what, j)), "X11")
#if defined HAVE_JPEG  & !defined HAVE_WORKING_CAIRO
             || streql(CHAR(STRING_ELT(what, j)), "jpeg")
#endif
#if defined HAVE_PNG  & !defined HAVE_WORKING_CAIRO
             || streql(CHAR(STRING_ELT(what, j)), "png")
#endif
            ) {
            X11 = R_can_use_X11();
            break;
          }
#endif
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(LGLSXP, 14));
    PROTECT(ansnames = allocVector(STRSXP, 14));

    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i, mkChar("jpeg"));
#ifdef HAVE_JPEG
# if defined Unix && !defined HAVE_WORKING_CAIRO
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = X11;
# else
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = TRUE;
# endif
#else
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = FALSE;
#endif

    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i, mkChar("png"));
#ifdef HAVE_PNG
# if defined Unix && !defined HAVE_WORKING_CAIRO
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = X11;
# else /* Windows */
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = TRUE;
# endif
#else
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = FALSE;
#endif

    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i, mkChar("tcltk"));
#ifdef HAVE_TCLTK
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = TRUE;
#else
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = FALSE;
#endif

    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i, mkChar("X11"));
#ifdef HAVE_X11
# if defined(Unix) && !defined(__APPLE_CC__)
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = X11;
# else
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = TRUE;
# endif
#else
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = FALSE;
#endif

    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i, mkChar("aqua"));
#ifdef HAVE_AQUA
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = TRUE;
#else
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = FALSE;
#endif

    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i, mkChar("http/ftp"));
#if HAVE_INTERNET
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = TRUE;
#else
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = FALSE;
#endif

    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i, mkChar("sockets"));
#ifdef HAVE_SOCKETS
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = TRUE;
#else
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = FALSE;
#endif

    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i, mkChar("libxml"));
#ifdef SUPPORT_LIBXML
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = TRUE;
#else
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = FALSE;
#endif

    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i, mkChar("fifo"));
#if defined(HAVE_MKFIFO) && defined(HAVE_FCNTL_H)
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = TRUE;
#else
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = FALSE;
#endif

    /* This one is complex.  Set it to be true only in interactive use,
       with the Windows and GNOME GUIs (but not Tk GUI) or under Unix
       if readline is available and in use. */
    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i, mkChar("cledit"));
    LOGICAL(ans)[i] = FALSE;
#if defined(Win32)
    if (R_Interactive) LOGICAL(ans)[i] = TRUE;
#endif
#ifdef Unix
    if (strcmp(R_GUIType, "GNOME") == 0) {  /* always interactive */
      LOGICAL(ans)[i] = TRUE;  /* also AQUA ? */
    } else {
#if defined(HAVE_LIBREADLINE) && defined(HAVE_READLINE_HISTORY_H)
      extern Rboolean UsingReadline;
      if (R_Interactive && UsingReadline) LOGICAL(ans)[i] = TRUE;
#endif
    }
#endif
    i++;

    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i, mkChar("iconv"));
#if defined(HAVE_ICONV) && defined(ICONV_LATIN1)
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = TRUE;
#else
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = FALSE;
#endif

    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i, mkChar("NLS"));
#ifdef ENABLE_NLS
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = TRUE;
#else
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = FALSE;
#endif

    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i, mkChar("profmem"));
#ifdef R_MEMORY_PROFILING
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = TRUE;
#else
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = FALSE;
#endif

    SET_STRING_ELT(ansnames, i, mkChar("cairo"));
#ifdef HAVE_WORKING_CAIRO
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = TRUE;
#else
    LOGICAL(ans)[i++] = FALSE;
#endif

    setAttrib(ans, R_NamesSymbol, ansnames);
    UNPROTECT(2);
    return ans;
}

#if defined(HAVE_BSD_NETWORKING) && defined(HAVE_ARPA_INET_H)
#include <netdb.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>

SEXP attribute_hidden do_nsl(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    SEXP ans = R_NilValue;
    const char *name; char ip[] = "xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx";
    struct hostent *hp;

    checkArity(op, args);
    if (!isString(CAR(args)) || length(CAR(args)) != 1)
      error(_("'hostname' must be a character vector of length 1"));
    name = translateChar(STRING_ELT(CAR(args), 0));

    hp = gethostbyname(name);

    if (hp == NULL) {         /* cannot resolve the address */
      warning(_("nsl() was unable to resolve host '%s'"), name);
    } else {
      if (hp->h_addrtype == AF_INET) {
          struct in_addr in;
          memcpy(&in.s_addr, *(hp->h_addr_list), sizeof (in.s_addr));
          strcpy(ip, inet_ntoa(in));
      } else {
          warning(_("unknown format returned by gethostbyname"));
      }
      ans = mkString(ip);
    }
    return ans;
}
#else
SEXP attribute_hidden do_nsl(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    warning(_("nsl() is not supported on this platform"));
    return R_NilValue;
}
#endif

SEXP attribute_hidden do_sysgetpid(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    checkArity(op, args);
    return ScalarInteger(getpid());
}


#ifndef Win32
/* mkdir is defined in <sys/stat.h> */
SEXP attribute_hidden do_dircreate(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    SEXP path;
    int res, show, recursive, mode;
    char *p, dir[PATH_MAX];

    checkArity(op, args);
    path = CAR(args);
    if (!isString(path) || length(path) != 1)
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "path");
    if (STRING_ELT(path, 0) == NA_STRING) return ScalarLogical(FALSE);
    show = asLogical(CADR(args));
    if (show == NA_LOGICAL) show = 0;
    recursive = asLogical(CADDR(args));
    if (recursive == NA_LOGICAL) recursive = 0;
    mode = asInteger(CADDDR(args));
    if (mode == NA_LOGICAL) mode = 0777;
    strcpy(dir, R_ExpandFileName(translateChar(STRING_ELT(path, 0))));
    /* remove trailing slashes */
    p = dir + strlen(dir) - 1;
    while (*p == '/' && strlen(dir) > 1) *p-- = '\0';
    if (recursive) {
      p = dir;
      while ((p = Rf_strchr(p+1, '/'))) {
          *p = '\0';
          res = mkdir(dir, mode);
          if (res && errno != EEXIST) goto end;
          *p = '/';
      }
    }
    res = mkdir(dir, mode);
    if (show && res && errno == EEXIST)
      warning(_("'%s' already exists"), dir);
end:
    if (show && res && errno != EEXIST)
#ifdef HAVE_STRERROR
      warning(_("cannot create dir '%s', reason '%s'"), dir, strerror(errno));
#else
      warning(_("cannot create dir '%s'"), dir);
#endif
    return ScalarLogical(res == 0);
}
#else /* Win32 */
#include <io.h> /* mkdir is defined here */
SEXP attribute_hidden do_dircreate(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    SEXP  path;
    wchar_t *p, dir[MAX_PATH];
    int res, show, recursive;

    checkArity(op, args);
    path = CAR(args);
    if (!isString(path) || length(path) != 1)
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "path");
    if (STRING_ELT(path, 0) == NA_STRING) return ScalarLogical(FALSE);
    show = asLogical(CADR(args));
    if (show == NA_LOGICAL) show = 0;
    recursive = asLogical(CADDR(args));
    if (recursive == NA_LOGICAL) recursive = 0;
    wcscpy(dir, filenameToWchar(STRING_ELT(path, 0), TRUE));
    for (p = dir; *p; p++) if (*p == L'/') *p = L'\\';
    /* remove trailing slashes */
    p = dir + wcslen(dir) - 1;
    while (*p == L'\\' && wcslen(dir) > 1 && *(p-1) != L':') *p-- = L'\0';
    if (recursive) {
      p = dir;
      while ((p = wcschr(p+1, L'\\'))) {
          *p = L'\0';
          if (*(p-1) != L':') {
            res = _wmkdir(dir);
            if (res && errno != EEXIST) goto end;
          }
          *p = L'\\';
      }
    }
    res = _wmkdir(dir);
    if (show && res && errno == EEXIST)
      warning(_("'%s' already exists"), dir);
end:
    return ScalarLogical(res == 0);
}
#endif

SEXP attribute_hidden do_l10n_info(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
#ifdef Win32
    int len = 4;
#else
    int len = 3;
#endif
    SEXP ans, names;
    checkArity(op, args);
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(VECSXP, len));
    PROTECT(names = allocVector(STRSXP, len));
    SET_STRING_ELT(names, 0, mkChar("MBCS"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(names, 1, mkChar("UTF-8"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(names, 2, mkChar("Latin-1"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 0, ScalarLogical(mbcslocale));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 1, ScalarLogical(utf8locale));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 2, ScalarLogical(latin1locale));
#ifdef Win32
    SET_STRING_ELT(names, 3, mkChar("codepage"));
    SET_VECTOR_ELT(ans, 3, ScalarInteger(localeCP));
#endif
    setAttrib(ans, R_NamesSymbol, names);
    UNPROTECT(2);
    return ans;
}

#ifndef Win32 /* in src/gnuwin32/extra.c */
#ifndef HAVE_DECL_REALPATH
extern char *realpath(const char *path, char *resolved_path);
#endif

SEXP attribute_hidden do_normalizepath(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
#if defined(HAVE_GETCWD) && defined(HAVE_REALPATH)
    SEXP ans, paths = CAR(args);
    int i, n = LENGTH(paths);
    const char *path;
    char tmp[PATH_MAX+1], abspath[PATH_MAX+1], *res = NULL;
    Rboolean OK;

    checkArity(op, args);
    if (!isString(paths))
      error("'path' must be a character vector");
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(STRSXP, n));
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      path = translateChar(STRING_ELT(paths, i));
      OK = strlen(path) <= PATH_MAX;
      if (OK) {
          if (path[0] == '/') strncpy(abspath, path, PATH_MAX);
          else {
            OK = getcwd(abspath, PATH_MAX) != NULL;
            OK = OK && (strlen(path) + strlen(abspath) + 1 <= PATH_MAX);
            if (OK) {
                strcat(abspath, "/");
                strcat(abspath, path);
            }
          }
      }
      if (OK) res = realpath(abspath, tmp);
      if (OK && res) SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, mkChar(tmp));
      else SET_STRING_ELT(ans, i, STRING_ELT(paths, i));
    }
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return ans;
#else
    checkArity(op, args);
    warning("insufficient OS support on this platform");
    return CAR(args);
#endif
}
#endif

SEXP attribute_hidden do_syschmod(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
#ifdef HAVE_CHMOD
    SEXP paths, ans;
    int i, n, mode, res;

    checkArity(op, args);
    paths = CAR(args);
    if (!isString(paths))
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "paths");
    n = LENGTH(paths);
    mode = asInteger(CADR(args));
    if (mode == NA_LOGICAL) mode = 0777;
#ifdef Win32
    /* Windows' _chmod seems only to support read access or read-write access
     */
    mode = (mode & 0200) ? (_S_IWRITE | _S_IREAD): _S_IREAD;
#endif
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(LGLSXP, n));
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      if (STRING_ELT(paths, i) != NA_STRING) {
#ifdef Win32
      res = _wchmod(filenameToWchar(STRING_ELT(paths, i), TRUE), mode);
#else
      res = chmod(R_ExpandFileName(translateChar(STRING_ELT(paths, i))),
                mode);
#endif
      } else res = 1;
      LOGICAL(ans)[i] = res == 0;
   }
#else
    SEXP paths, ans;
    int i, n;

    checkArity(op, args);
    paths = CAR(args);
    if (!isString(paths))
      error(_("invalid '%s' argument"), "paths");
    n = LENGTH(paths);
    warning("insufficient OS support on this platform");
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(LGLSXP, n));
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) LOGICAL(ans)[i] = 0;
#endif
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return ans;
}

SEXP attribute_hidden do_sysumask(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
#ifdef HAVE_UMASK
    SEXP ans;
    int mode;
    mode_t res;

    checkArity(op, args);
    mode = asInteger(CAR(args));
    if (mode == NA_LOGICAL)
      error(_("invalid '%s' value"), "umask");
    res = umask(mode);
    PROTECT(ans = ScalarInteger(res));
#else
    SEXP ans = R_NilValue;

    checkArity(op, args);
    warning(_("insufficient OS support on this platform"));
    PROTECT(ans = ScalarInteger(0));
#endif
    setAttrib(ans, R_ClassSymbol, mkString("octmode"));
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return ans;
}


SEXP attribute_hidden do_Cstack_info(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP rho)
{
    SEXP ans, nms;

    checkArity(op, args);
    PROTECT(ans = allocVector(INTSXP, 4));
    PROTECT(nms = allocVector(STRSXP, 4));
    INTEGER(ans)[0] = (R_CStackLimit == -1) ? NA_INTEGER : R_CStackLimit;
    INTEGER(ans)[1] = (R_CStackLimit == -1) ? NA_INTEGER :
      R_CStackDir * (R_CStackStart - (uintptr_t) &ans);
    INTEGER(ans)[2] = R_CStackDir;
    INTEGER(ans)[3] = R_EvalDepth;
    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 0, mkChar("size"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 1, mkChar("current"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 2, mkChar("direction"));
    SET_STRING_ELT(nms, 3, mkChar("eval_depth"));

    UNPROTECT(2);
    setAttrib(ans, R_NamesSymbol, nms);
    return ans;
}

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